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The 20th century witnessed a plethora of political books that transformed the global geopolitical landscape. These books disrupted conventional thinking and shaped the political, economic, and cultural worldviews of that era. From Marxist theory to capitalist doctrine, these books paved the way for social movements and political revolutions that continue to shape the modern world. This article explores the most influential political books that have shaped the 20th century.

“The Communist Manifesto” – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

“The Communist Manifesto” is one of the most influential political books ever written. First published in 1848, it lays out the principles and goals of communism, including the abolition of private property and the class struggle. The book inspired numerous political revolutions, including the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union.

“The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” – John Maynard Keynes

Published in 1936, “The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” became the foundation of Keynesian economics. Keynes argued that government intervention in the economy was necessary to stabilize fluctuations in employment, investment, and prices. The book influenced economic policies worldwide and played a significant role in the post-World War II economic boom.

“The Wealth of Nations” – Adam Smith

Published in 1776, “The Wealth of Nations” is considered the father of modern economics. Adam Smith argued that the pursuit of individual self-interest would lead to a general prosperity and harmony in society. The book advocated for free markets, the division of labor, and the invisible hand of the market. These concepts have had a profound impact on capitalist societies worldwide.

“The Feminine Mystique” – Betty Friedan

Published in 1963, “The Feminine Mystique” critiqued the traditional role of women in society and inspired the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The book argued that women were denied the opportunity to pursue their interests and aspirations in a male-dominated society. By challenging traditional views of gender roles, Friedan’s book has had a lasting impact on women’s rights and gender equality.

“1984” – George Orwell

Published in 1949, “1984” has had a significant impact on political and cultural thought. The book portrays a dystopian society where individual freedom is suppressed by a totalitarian government. Orwell’s work has inspired political dissidents and social activists to speak out against oppressive governments and to fight for personal freedoms.

“The Invisible Man” – Ralph Ellison

Published in 1952, “The Invisible Man” is a critique of racism and the dehumanizing effects of prejudice. The book follows the journey of a young black man who struggles to find his place in a society that views him as an outsider. It inspired the Civil Rights Movement and has had a lasting impact on discussions around racial identity and discrimination.


These political books have shaped the 20th century in various ways, from inspiring social movements to influencing economic and political policies. These books continue to inspire new generations of political activists and cultural critics, providing a lens through which to view contemporary social, economic, and political issues. These books have become a part of the literary canon, influencing discourse and shaping the world in which we live.